Primary Antibodies

BioGenex offers more than 400 primary antibodies with a specific emphasis on cancer and infectious diseases. All monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies are quality controlled and highly optimized to provide maximum signal with minimum background when used for immunohistochemical staining on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue.

An antibody is a glycoprotein which is produced by the immune system in response to a ‘foreign’ substance. Each antibody is specific to a specific antigen. Antibodies are Y-shaped molecules, made up of two identical light chains and two identical heavy chains. These are joined together with disulfide bonds. The specific structure and combination of these chains allows the antibody molecules to bind to multiple cells at the same time. The variable or V region of an antibody refers to the two arms of the Y structure and this region can bind to antigens. In contrast, the stem of the Y structure is called the constant or C region which can bind to only a limited number of effector cells and molecules.

An antibody which binds to a particular protein/ biomolecule of interest is known a primary antibody. By using animal species such as the rat, mouse, goat, and rabbit as hosts, primary antibodies are produced as monoclonal (mAbs) or polyclonal antibodies (pAbs). Monoclonal antibodies are produced from a single B-cell clone of an animal and therefore are directed against only one epitope of an antigen. Polyclonal antibodies are produced from multiple B-cell clones of an animal, and have a mixture of antibodies that are directed against several epitopes of an antigen. MAbs are optimal for identical production and standardization experiments and produce very less or no background staining. There is also a reduced chance of cross-reaction with unwanted proteins while using a mAb. Since pAbs can bind to multiple epitopes of a single antigen, they are capable of recognizing even minor variations in the antigen.

Primary antibodies are developed and supplied in various raw and purified forms.  Primary antibody is useful for the identification of biomarkers such as cancer, diabetes, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease. Detecting antigens in biochemistry, cell biology, and histology assays often involves the antibodies that react with the particular antigen. The antibody which directly binds to the antigen is called primary antibody. The epitope on the antigen is recognized by variable region of the primary antibody. The primary antibody usually does not contain a fluorophore or an enzyme, so it is difficult to identify the antigen without further reagents such as a secondary antibody.

Antibodies for automation

Primary Antibodies –Clinical Platforms Automation

  1. Xmatrx Elite®: Ready to use (RTU) antibody for 200 or 50 tests (80 100 µL/test) in RFID barcoded vials.
  2. i6000™ Elite & Xmatrx® Infinity: RTU antibody for 100 tests (100 µL/test) supplied in barcode labeled  and non-barcoded vials respectively.

Antibodies for Ready-to-Use (RTU)

These antibodies are fully optimized for use with BioGenex detection systems without the need for further dilution or titration and are recommended for use with all Super Sensitive Detection Systems to provide optimum staining. Their formats are indicated by catalog numbers prefixed with:

  1. AC (Antibody Cocktails)
  2. AM (Mouse Monoclonal Antibodies)
  3. AN (Rabbit Monoclonal Antibodies)
  4. AX, AY (Monoclonal Antibodies for Xmatrx)
  5. AW (Polyclonal Antibodies for Xmatrx)
  6. AR (Polyclonal Antibodies)

Concentrated Antibodies

These antibodies are provided with recommended dilutions for optimal use with BioGenex’s detection systems, and they offer an economical alternative for laboratories involved in high volume immunostaining. Their formats are indicated by catalog numbers prefixed with:

  1. MU (Mouse Monoclonal Antibodies)
  2. NU (Rabbit Monoclonal Antibodies)
  3. PU (Polyclonal Antibodies)

Pack Size

Unless otherwise specified, the following table lists the pack size for the available formats of antibodies:

Format Pack Size Extension in Product Cat. No.
Ready-to-use (Manual) 6 mL – 5M or -5R
Ready-to-use (i6000™) 10 mL -10M or -10R
Ready-to-use (Xmatrx®) 16 mL – YCD
Ready-to-use (Xmatrx®) 5 mL – 50D
Concentrated 1 mL – UC or – UP
Concentrated 0.5 mL – 5UC or – 5UP